عنوان مقاله [English]
Systems thinking offers a holistic approach rather than a reductionist approach, the broad range of the ST-related literature found in various disciplines, generates a great deal of disagreement about definitions and understanding of systems thinking. Despite the current ambiguities of ST definitions, its underlying philosophy has a long history. This paper aims to clarify what ST is in the modern day and why it is defined in so many different ways. It identifies a number of interpretations of systems thinking with the purpose of clarifying what it is and why it is variously understood. Systems thinking is widely believed to be critical in handling the complexity facing the world in the coming decades. There is a wide range of opinion as to what systems thinking really is, and how its benefits can be realized in engineering practice. In fact, the concept of what constitutes a „system‟ is wide and variable. The purpose of the paper is to draw together diverse perspectives of systems thinking useful in engineering, and to present a set of core concepts that are useful in the successful design and operation of engineered systems. This research examines new directions in project management and systems thinking theory and practice. In systems thinking, not only the components and details of a system are looked at, but also how the interaction between components and the interaction of components and the environment are examined. Obstacles and factors cause people to move away from system thinking. Systemic thinking is clichéd thinking, while relying solely on details eliminates the possibility of understanding the patterns that govern the phenomenon and the system. While describing the components of systems thinking, its most important "obstacles" are examined.